Modulus Rebound

Throughout the past decades, technology applied to golf has developed considerably. In the early 90s, the increase in the size of golf drivers and the improvement of the materials allowed clubheads to increase volume to 460cc. In the first decade of this century it was innovations in the necks that allowed players to personalize their clubs to their specific needs. In 2015, Williams is presenting the next biggest innovation in golf, adjusting clubfaces to maximise the rebound effect at impact for various targeted speeds.

Tennis players have applied this technology for a very long time. A young player would need a softer tension on the strings of the racket than an adult, and a professional player would have an even higher tension as each one of them swings at a different speed.

In golf, swing speed can range from 70mph up to 135mph. Considering the application of tennis cording technology to golf raises the question as to why it has not been applied before. Originally, golf regulations stated that a conforming club must have a Coefficient Of Restitution (COR) - or a rebound effect - of 0.830 or under at 109mph. Clubs have since been built to maximize the rebound effect at that speed, meaning players with slower swing speeds have inferior rebound effect, hence reducing their possibilities to hit the ball further. Recently USGA no longer uses air cannon for COR testing. They have changed to CT (Characteristic Time) testing where a pendulum arm with a sensor in the end of the arm swings down and bounces off the center of the clubface. They measure how long the sensor stays on the face in microseconds µ and the limit is 257µ. At all effects the concept remains invariable, and whilst you can keep under the 257 CT at 109MPH, you can make it more bouncy at target swing speeds if you are knowledgeable of how to work alloys out, by adjusting the Modulus of Young to the desired rebound effect at target swing speed whilst being conforming at the test measuring speed. Williams' depth of experience working with specialist alloys has supported the development of a set of heads where each one is engineered to produce its maximum rebound at a determined range of swing speeds while continuing to conform to the regulations at 109mph. Each Face has been assigned a specific range of speed and a targeted loft, producing 4 sets of heads with varied tensile properties at 12°, 10.5°, 9° and 7.5°.

The four decades of advanced Formula One engineering experience have allowed Williams Racing Golf to produce specific alloys that can be efficiently heat treated and easily welded. The tensile properties of an alloy are measured through the Modulus of Young. Working with various heat treatment techniques, it has been possible to industrialize a process where it is cost effective to produce 4 different heads whilst the rest of the industry is still developing a one-head only concept. By adjusting the tensile properties of every head according to Young's Modulus, it is now possible to maximise the COR for every target swing speed and given loft so that the face rebound is maximised.

This is the concept that gives name to our new driver; MODULUS of Young => REBOUND improvement (MR).

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